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What is the Blockchain Trilemma?

What is the Blockchain Trilemma? image 0

The blockchain trilemma presents a significant challenge for developers seeking to create robust and efficient blockchain systems. There is no one-size-fits-all solution, but ongoing research and experimentation are helping to advance the state of the art. Some proposed solutions include sharding, Layer-2 solutions, and state channels, each of which aims to address one or more aspects of the trilemma while minimizing trade-offs. In this article, we'll take a closer look at each of these solutions and explore how they can help us to overcome the blockchain trilemma.

Laying the Foundations

If you've dabbled in blockchain technology and the realm of Web3 for even just a short period of time, chances are that you may have stumbled upon the term "blockchain trilemma." This concept refers to the difficult trade-off between three key features of a blockchain system: scalability, security, and decentralization.

In its most basic form, a blockchain is a distributed digital ledger that organizes blocks of data in chronological order and secures them through cryptographic proofs. This technology is being implemented across various industries and is already transforming the way we work and live. The blockchain's decentralization and security features offer a promising alternative to traditional third-party networks and markets.

On the one hand, blockchains need to be scalable to handle a large number of transactions quickly and efficiently. This is especially important if cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology are to become more widely adopted. However, increasing scalability often comes at the expense of security and decentralization. For example, larger block sizes and faster transaction processing can make a blockchain more vulnerable to attacks and limit the ability of individual nodes to participate in the network.

On the other hand, security and decentralization are crucial for ensuring that a blockchain system is trustworthy and resistant to censorship or control by any one party. But achieving these goals can come at the expense of scalability, as it may require slower transaction times or a more resource-intensive consensus mechanism.

The Blockchain Trilemma

The widespread adoption of blockchain technology, however, is hindered by a fundamental challenge known as the "blockchain trilemma." Coined by Vitalik Buterin, the co-founder of Ethereum, the blockchain trilemma arises from the inherent trade-offs between three critical characteristics of a blockchain system: decentralization, security, and scalability.

The trilemma highlights the difficulty in achieving optimal levels of all three features simultaneously, as enhancing one often leads to a weakening of another. While decentralization and security are essential for ensuring a trustworthy and censorship-resistant blockchain system, scalability is equally crucial for handling a large volume of transactions efficiently. Unfortunately, increasing scalability often comes at the expense of security and decentralization.

To address this challenge, blockchain developers are exploring various solutions, such as consensus mechanisms, sharding, sidechains, and state channels, to mitigate the trade-offs between the three properties. Here, we take a closer look at the trifecta of these three properties, investigating what they are and how they relate to the development of the future of blockchain technology.

Understanding Decentralization

In simple terms, a decentralized blockchain network such as Bitcoin, for instance, is designed to be operated in such a way that there is no central authority or organization in control of the network. Instead, the network is open to anyone who wants to participate, and all participants have equal access to the data. Transactions are validated and confirmed by a network of participants, rather than a central entity like a bank.

This decentralized structure allows for the possibility of Web3, the next evolution of the internet, in which users can control their own data and online lives without relying on centralized companies. However, decentralization can also lead to slower transaction times due to the need for consensus among a wide range of participants.

In addition, security is crucial for the decentralized dream to become a reality. If a blockchain lacks security, bad actors can manipulate the data in their favor and undermine the integrity of the network. This is where the second part of the blockchain trilemma comes into play: security.

In order for a blockchain to be secure, it needs to be resistant to attacks from hackers and other malicious actors. This requires robust cryptographic protocols and a consensus mechanism that can prevent unauthorized changes to the data. However, increasing security measures can sometimes come at the expense of scalability and decentralization, creating a trade-off that must be carefully managed.

Blockchain Security

Introducing the next player in this round-robin: security.

Security is a crucial component of a decentralized blockchain network. While centralized systems rely on the system being closed to ensure data is free from interference, decentralized systems such as Bitcoin employ a combination of cryptography and consensus mechanisms to achieve security. Cryptography is used to provide a digital signature (hash) for each block of data, with each block being linked together in a way that prevents tampering. Any attempt to change the data would be quickly identified by the rest of the network, and thus the system is secure.

In addition to cryptography, consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW) are used to secure the ledger of the cryptocurrency. PoW requires members of the network to use computational power to solve a mathematical puzzle, which involves performing numerous hashing functions. Only when a member has solved the puzzle can they verify new transactions and add them to the ledger. While this mechanism is secure, it is relatively slow, which impacts scalability.

Further, the number of participants in a network also plays a significant role in its security. A larger number of nodes can make it harder for one bad actor to take control of the system, as it would require control of over 50% of the network's hashing power to override consensus and change the data. This is known as the 51% attack, and it is a potential threat to the security of a blockchain network.

Path for the Masses: Scalability

The third and final aspect of the blockchain trilemma finds itself in arguably one of the key discussion points on bringing blockchain closer to the masses and for ideal onboarding: scalability.

Scalability is a critical aspect of blockchain technology, as it refers to the ability of a blockchain network to handle an increasing number of transactions per second. Scalability is essential for blockchain technology to serve a broader population, including potentially billions of users. However, many blockchains still struggle with scalability due to the priority placed on decentralization and security.

While decentralization and security are both key tenets to building up the future roadmap for blockchain technology, prioritizing both at the same time can lead to challenges with scalability. The number of transactions a blockchain can handle is limited by the processing capabilities of the network's participants and the consensus mechanism used. For example, the PoW consensus mechanism used by Bitcoin and many other blockchains is secure but relatively slow, limiting the number of transactions that can be processed per second.

Centralized payment systems such as Visa, in contrast, have the capacity to support up to 24,000 transactions per second. This is because these systems are closed and not subject to the same considerations as public blockchains. Therefore, while decentralization and security are essential features of blockchain technology, they can limit the scalability of blockchain networks.

The limited transaction speeds of many blockchains can become a problem as more people begin to use blockchain technology. As the number of users and transactions increases, the network can become congested, leading to delays and higher transaction fees. Therefore, improving scalability is an ongoing challenge for the blockchain industry, and many solutions are being explored, such as new consensus mechanisms, sharding, and off-chain scaling solutions.

Solving the Blockchain Trilemma: A Dilemma for the Ages

While there is no one solution to the trilemma, there have been a number of different approaches within the blockchain community. Here are some of the most popular developments:

Different Consensus Mechanisms

One of the reasons the trilemma exists in the Bitcoin network is because of the way PoW works to ensure security. The need for miners, crypto algorithms, and huge amounts of decentralized computing power leads to a secure system, but a slow one. Finding a different way to secure consensus is one approach to solving the trilemma. This was one of the reasons behind Ethereum's move from PoW to Proof of Stake (PoS).

In PoS blockchains, participants involved in validating transactions must stake (lock) their tokens. There’s no need for highly specialized mining machines, and adding more validators to the network is simpler and more accessible. PoS is just one of many different approaches to consensus mechanisms with scalability in mind.


Sharding is a method of partitioning blockchains (or other types of databases) into smaller, manageable pieces called shards. Each shard has its own specific ledger and can process its own transactions. This takes the stress off a single chain dealing with all transactions and interactions on a network. A beacon blockchain or main chain manages interactions between shards. This makes sharding a Layer 1 network scalability upgrade, as it’s a change to the mainnet of a blockchain.

Shardeum is one example of such a sharding network. Through its unique dynamic state sharding system, the network will shard its state by evenly and dynamically distributing commute workload, storage, and bandwidth among all the nodes. This not only allows for parallel processing of transactions but also very low overhead for validator nodes as they will store only the state data of transactions they are involved in.

Layer-2 Solutions

Layer-2 solutions build on top of an existing network structure rather than changing the fundamental design of the underlying network. Sidechains and state channels are two examples of Layer-2 solutions that can help solve the trilemma.

A sidechain is a separate blockchain connected to the main chain. It’s set up in a way that assets can flow freely between the two. Importantly, the sidechain can operate under different rules, allowing for greater speed and scale. Similarly, state channels are another way of taking transactions off the main chain and easing pressure on Layer 1. A state channel uses a smart contract, rather than a separate chain, to enable users to interact with each other without publishing their transactions to the blockchain. The blockchain only records the start and end of the channel.


While the scalability trilemma remains a significant obstacle towards its mass adoption, the ongoing efforts to address it are promising. As the technology continues to evolve and innovative solutions are developed, blockchain networks may eventually be able to achieve mass adoption and bring about the transformative changes they promise.

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